“The important thing is to never stop questioning.”-Albert Einstein
Callison, D. (2006).  Chapter 1: Information Inquiry: Concepts and Elements.  In Callison, D. & Preddy, L. The blue book on information age inquiry, instruction and literacy, (pp. 3-16). Westport, Conn: Libraries Unlimited.

Callison’s chapter focuses on information inquiry and research with a specific focus on his Five Elements of Information Inquiry, an ISP model that illustrates the different stages within the search process.  His cyclic model shows the interactions between the five stages of questioning, exploration, assimilation, inference and reflection.  This model allows students and teachers to assess and reflect on their information inquiry processes, an essential element within inquiry-based learning.   I also found the model extremely useful during my expert searches, as it enabled me to reflect on past searches and how I can change my search strings to improve my results. 

Carroll, K. (2012). Learning design and inquiry in Australian history classrooms. In C. Alexander, J. Dalziel, J. Krajka & E. Dobozy (Eds.) Teaching English with Technology, Special Edition on LAMS and Learning Design volume 3, 12(2), 36-50. Retrieved from http://www.tewtjournal.org.

Carroll’s research paper focuses on developing inquiry learning in an Information Communication Technology (ICT) context. She talks about the teacher’s pedagogical perspective and how this plays an integral part in inquiry learning design (Carroll, 2012).   With Carroll’s valuable knowledge as a Senior Lecturer in Teacher Education at the Australian Catholic University, she is qualified to­­­­ comment on ICT practices and inquiry based learning.      This research paper focuses on 4 different schools, and these case studies form the basis of Carroll’s research.  The case studies highlight the potential of an ICT rich pedagogy within the History classroom and how certain practices involving ICTs and History pedagogy can be inter-twined to create effective and sustainable teaching methods (Carroll, 2012).  Ultimately the paper does provide valuable insight into the use of ICTs within a history classroom, however further sources would need to be consulted in order to discover more information about activities and tasks involving ICTs for History classes.

FitzGerald, L. (2011). The twin purposes of Guided Inquiry: guiding student inquiry and evidence based practice. Scan Vol 30 No 1 February 2011 Retrieved from

FitzGerald (2011) provides an overview of a Guided Inquiry project undertaken by teachers, teacher librarians and student groups participating in the 2008 NSW Association of Independent Schools’ project. The paper includes Lee’s case study, which focuses on her small-scale practitioner research on a 2010 Year 11 modern historical investigation. FitzGerald is the Head Teacher Librarian at Loreto Kirribilli, an independent Catholic girls’ school in Sydney.  The article walks the reader through Guided Inquiry (GI) and Information Search Process (ISP) and how it has been applied to a Year 11 modern historical investigation.  She also talks about the aims within the project including:

  • the engagement of participating teams of teachers and teacher librarians in developing and carrying out GI units, based on the Information search process 
  • to track changes in the language students used at different stages of their enquiry to describe their understanding of their topic
  • to find out what students find easy and difficult in research 
  • to learn to use the School Library Impact Measure (SLIM) Toolkit (Todd, Kuhlthau & Heinström, 2005)  for analysing data. 

At the end of the article, FitzGerald concludes that GI as demonstrated through this research project provided a way of making information literacy a mainstream element of the major assessment tasks students encounter in their school life.  This source provides an excellent example of guided inquiry in the classroom with specific emphasis on the types of activities and tools you can use to enhance guided inquiry within the classroom.  

Gillon, K and Stotter, J. (2011). Inquiry learning with senior secondary students : yes it can be done! [online]. Access; v.25 n.3 p.14-19. 

This article focuses on the challenges of implementing inquiry learning within a senior secondary school.   Jill Stotter is a trained teacher librarian and secondary English teacher, working at a large co-educational school in Auckland and Kirsty Gillon is Head of History at the same school.   Stotter and Gillon provide a very succinct definition of inquiry learning and the problems of implementing this style of teaching within senior secondary classes.  Whilst the article is based on New Zealand curriculum, many senior teachers within Australia face the same difficulties. The authors then explain the steps taken within each History topic and how they developed inquiry learning through questions, activities and reflections. This a very detailed case study based on how to develop inquiry learning within a senior history class and provides some excellent examples on types of activities and questions that can be used to enable students to develop their inquiring minds.  The reflection stage is extremely helpful as both teachers reflect on what worked within the unit and what improvements need to be made. I also found Stotter’s diagram (pictured below) on information skills extremely useful as it helped me to understand what type of skills need to be taught for each process within information inquiry. 

Taken from: Gillon, K and Stotter, J. (2011)
Harada, V. and Yoshina, J. (2004). Chapter 1: Identifying the inquiry-based school. In Harada, V. and Yoshina, J. Inquiry learning through librarian-teacher partnerships, (pp. 1-10). Linworth Publishing: Worthington, Ohio.

Harada and Yoshina’s chapter first introduces the reader to inquiry-based learning, its characteristics and how it differs from conventional teaching methods.  I found this a particularly useful reading to “jump-start” my thinking on inquiry-based learning and how it should look in the classroom.  The authors also discuss the role of the library media programme in such an environment and how these specialists can enable inquiry-based learning within the school curriculum.  Harada and Yoshina’s chapter was well organised and easy to read, it was also especially helpful with the comparison tables to see the difference between inquiry-based learning and more conventional practices (as pictured below). 

Taken from: Harada, V. and Yoshina, J. (2004)
Kuhlthau, Carol C. ; Maniotes, Leslie K. & Caspari, Ann K, (2007). Chapter 2: The Theory and Research Basis for Guided Inquiry. In Kuhlthau, Carol C. ; Maniotes, Leslie K. & Caspari, Ann K, Guided inquiry : learning in the 21st century, (pp.13 – 28). Westport, Conn: Libraries Unlimited.

This chapter focuses on Kuhlthau’s Model of the Information Search Process (ISP), stating that it is important for school librarians and teachers to reflect on the stages of their research to become more aware of how they feel during these stages, how they work through these stages and what strategies they use to help them complete their tasks (p. 17).  Kuhlthau provides a wealth of information on information search processes and as a co-author of several books, she is well known for her insight into guided inquiry in education.  I found this chapter extremely useful as it helped me to understand the different stages within my expert searches and how I gathered information.  This model enables educators to understand how extensive searching and learning takes place, however it also prepares them for developing guided inquiry practices for students (Kuhlthau, et al, 2007).  This chapter is highly recommended for educators wanting to understand more about information search processes and how to introduce students to reflective practices. 

Lehman, K. (2010). Bring history alive with primary sources. Library Media Connection, 28(5), 30-31. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/742859832?accountid=13380

Primary sources are not only an integral part of History; they also prove to be valuable tools to enhance inquiry-based learning within the classroom.  I was interested to learn more about how to use primary sources and what types of Guided Inquiry activities are helpful in building students’ analysis and comparative skills with regards to historical sources. Whilst this paper was based in an American school context it did provide some excellent examples of how to use primary sources within a History class and what type of inquiry questions you can ask in order to help students develop their inquiring minds.

Murdoch, K. (2006). Inquiry learning: journeys through the thinking processes. Teacher Learning Network, 13(2), 32-34. Retrieved from

Kath Murdoch is an education consultant and fellow of the University of Melbourne.  The focus of the paper is on the benefits of an inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning and what strategies you can employ in the classroom to help students develop their inquiring minds.  The article has been written for the Teacher Learning Network, so Murdoch’s targeted audience is that of teachers, administrators and anyone involved in education.  Murdoch has written many books for teachers including ‘Take a Moment’ (2005), and ‘Learning links: Strategic teaching for the learner-centred classroom’ (Murdoch and Wilson, 2004).  This is valuable source that provides a brief introduction into inquiry-based learning and some methods that can be adopted within the classroom, however for a more detailed approach to inquiry learning other sources would need to be consulted.

Queensland Studies Authority (QSA).  (2004).  Senior Modern History Syllabus. Queensland Studies Authority, Queensland. 

The senior syllabus for Modern History, produced by the Queensland Studies Authority, proves to be a valuable document when examining the links between inquiry-based learning and the curriculum.  Each unit is designed around an inquiry topic along with details on how to structure the process of inquiry.  Stages include identifying historical issues; designing sub-questions; reflecting on research processes; speculating about primary and secondary sources and forming considered historical judgments (QSA, 2004).  Clearly the senior Modern History syllabus has been designed around an inquiry based learning framework, as questions and tasks are used to develop students’ understanding and knowledge about history and the skills needed to become independent researchers competent in making judgments about history.   This document will also be useful to evaluate and compare the ILA’s research project in relation to the QSA Modern History syllabus. 

Taylor, T.  and Young, C. (2003). Making History: A guide for the Teaching and Learning of History in Australian Schools. Retrieved from http://www.hyperhistory.org/images/assets/pdf/complete.pdf

This article, written by Associate Professor Tony Taylor, Monash University, and Carmel Young, University of Sydney is a guide funded by the Department of Education, Science and Training.   It is an innovative resource designed specifically to help support teachers of history, especially when navigating through the online environment. The resource is divided into several chapters, with specific information on topics such as historical literacy, constructing learning and practice and the nature of historical learning to name just a few. The chapter on Historical Literacy is extremely relevant as it takes you through different types of resources and sources and how to understand and use them with regards to assessments and activities.  This is a very informative and detailed guide for teaching History subjects especially in regards to helping students develop historical literacy and the skills needed to become independent researchers of History.  

Todd, R. J., Kuhlthau, C. C., & Heinström, J. E. (2005). School Library Impact Measure (SLIM): A Toolkit and Handbook for Tracking and Assessing Student Learning Outcomes of Guided Inquiry through the School Library. Center for International Scholarship in School Libraries, Rutgers University. Retrieved from http://leadinglibrariesprimary.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/slim_toolkit-handbook.pdf

The School Library Impact Measure (SLIM) was designed to assess students learning through the guided inquiry specifically in the school library.  The toolkit also takes you through the characteristics of guided inquiry and the information search process (ISP).  Dr Ross Todd , Dr Carol Kuhlthau and Dr Jannica Heinström, wrote this guide, all of who are known specialists in the field of guided inquiry and information search processes.  This guide will prove to be a valuable source both within the library and the classroom as it contains checklists for planning guided inquiry and tools that you can use to chart the development of student knowledge and skills.  More importantly the questionnaire used to gauge student learning and skills is extremely similar to the one that will be used during the Information Learning Area (ILA) study and also provides information for interpreting the data collected in the questionnaires. 

Ulusoy, K. (2012). A study about using internet in History lessons. Educational Review Vol 7 (4). P 72-82.  Retrieved from 

This is a research paper, undertaken by Kadir Ulusoy, Faculty of Education Associate Professor.  The paper introduces the importance of the Internet in the field of education and how it has become increasingly appealing among educators and students for the purposes of quick and easy web searchers.  The research paper is based on a qualitative study undertaken amongst students enrolled in the College of education in Adiyaman University, Turkey.    Many observations were made throughout the study, including the detrimental use internet searches may have on using traditional texts such as books and lack of computer training which effects their search methods.  The author also points to the fact that prospective teachers should have both skills to use technology and use their skills and knowledge in educational settings with optimum levels (Ulusoy, 2012, p. 74).  

One limitation of this research paper was that it was produced in Turkey, therefore some of the Internet sites and the curriculum framework did not apply to an Australian context.  However it still offered valuable insight into Internet and computer usage within the educational sphere, and issues that students may have with using technology.  Furthermore, this paper also highlights the need for educators to continually update their technological skills and knowledge.   I think this is extremely pertinent, especially when applying guided inquiry principles in a classroom setting, because as a teacher or teacher librarian, it is imperative to have information literacy skills that can be transferable to students. 

Wiersma, A. (2008). A study of the teaching methods of high school history teachers. The social studies, 99(3), 111-116. 

The purpose of Wiersma’s study was to “investigate and characterise current practice in secondary history education and its relationship to best practices.” (2008, p. 111).  Currently a teacher at Michigan Kalamazoo Central High School, Wiersma used three high school teachers as part of her study and observed inquiry based learning practices in all three of the teachers’ classrooms.  Whilst all three, teachers’ methods differed all were committed to developing higher-order thinking (Bloom’s Taxonomy) and allowing students to connect with history in a tangible way through primary source documents and continual questioning.  Student responsibility was also at the core of these classes, whereby the teachers would give them the necessary skills required in the History classes and it would then be the students’ responsibility to interpret and analyse History sources. Scholarly literature was consulted throughout the study, and Wiersma’s article uncovered how successful guided inquiry should look within the classroom and the benefits of inquiry-based learning for students.  This article will also be helpful in terms of best practices to compare with the Information Learning Area (ILA) I will be observing for the second stage of this blog.  

9/5/2013 18:29:29

Hi Nyssa. I will just comment on your annotated bibliography:

You have found a great range of pertinent resources, both Australian and International, including the FitzGerald article, which I also used and found very valuable. Your summaries give me a really good idea of the authors' goals and focus, with some standing out as must-reads for me in my own research. Having explored Kuhlthau, and Harada and Yoshina, I am keen to dip into Gillon and Stotter, Taylor and Young, Murdoch, and Lehman, in particular. Although my ILA is a Year 10 Geography class, I recently met with the History Co-ordinator to discuss collaborative planning for some History units for next year, with a Guided Inquiry focus. I am really excited (and a bit scared..) about this opportunity, and those resources will prove invaluable, so thank you! Although they are all directly related to History, you have clearly distinguished their varying content, which looks useful in different ways.

If you have time, you might want to edit your summaries to reduce the word count, as some may exceed the recommended length. I would also suggest including the essay as a separate page or post, as it is not easily found from the tabs at the top. One tiny typo in the Callison summary: "exert" instead of "expert".

By the way, I think your blog looks great. It is clear and easy to read and navigate, plus I love the images :)


Leave a Reply.